Working Paper

Publié au lendemain de la Terreur, La Philosophie dans le boudoir prend l’idéologie révolutionnaire et confronte ses idées telles que la liberté ou l’égalité au réel et au corps. Il s’agira de montrer comment le corps et le langage sont pour Sade intiment liés, et comment il cherche à transgresser leurs tabous par le sexe, la violence et le mouvement même de son écriture. En prenant le concept foucaldien de transgression, on verra comment ce mouvement n’en est pas un de destruction, menant à une négativité, mais un mouvement vers une réalité plus dense, vers une expérience de la plénitude, corporelle ou langagière.

On abordera premièrement la redéfinition du corps dans le livre : son anatomie et ses fonctions « naturelles », bafouées afin d’atteindre un idéal de plaisir ; les personnages marquent le corps, le tissent avec aiguille et fil, à l’image de l’auteur écrivant son texte.

On se penchera ensuite sur le rapport transgressif que Sade entretient au langage : comment, avec une pensée aporétique, l’auteur conteste les limites de la pensée logique et fait vivre au lecteur, dans la performativité même de son énonciation, une expérience irréductible au dire, mais qui ne peut être invoquée que par lui. 

Sous-jacent à cette réflexion, se pose la question de la pertinence du projet sadien (« tout dire, à quelque point qu’en frémissent les hommes ») aujourd’hui : face à un discours sur la liberté ou l’égalité, quelle est la valeur des idées une fois confrontées au réel et au corps?

Author Bio

Marianne Godard est une étudiante en littérature française à l’université McGill. Son mémoire porte sur l’éthique du corps dans la poésie d’Henri Meschonnic.

Yinqiu Ji, Chistopher C. M. Baker, Yuanheng Li, Viorel D. Popescu, Zhengyang Wang, Jiaxin Wang, Lin Wang, Chunying Wu, Chaolang Hua, Zhongxing Yang, Chunyan Yang, Charles C.Y. Xu, Qingzhong Wen, Naomi E. Pierce, and Douglas W. Yu. Working Paper. “Large-scale Quantification of Vertebrate Biodiversity in Ailaoshan Nature Reserve from Leech iDNA”. ji_leech_2020.pdf
Ben Buchanan. Working Paper. “The Legend of Sophistication in Cyber Operations”. Publisher's VersionAbstract


In a drumbeat of news stories and corporate press releases, one phrase has dramatically grown in use over the last decade: “sophisticated cyber attack.” These words have been used to describe specific intrusions into telecommunication providers, insurance companies, social media hubs, banks, the Pentagon, a host of security firms, government agencies, research labs, movie studios, and much more. It seems the world is awash in sophisticated network intrusions. 

But if everything is sophisticated, nothing is. This paper unpacks “sophistication” in cyber operations, exploring what it means, and what it should mean, for an operation to attain such a status. It examines the incentives for victims and observers to overstate the sophistication of other actors. Additionally, it offers a more rigorous framework for defining the term that takes into account technical and operational factors. But deploying the lens of sophistication by itself can be misleading; this paper also explores the incentives some actors have to deploy less sophisticated capabilities. 


Jana Gallus, Olivia S. Jung, and Karim R. Lakhani. Working Paper. “Managerial Recognition as an Incentive for Innovation Platform Engagement: A Field Experiment and Interview Study at NASA.” HBS Working Paper Series. Publisher's Version 20-059.pdf
Olivia Carpenter. Working Paper. “NATHALIE SARRAUTE’S TROPISMES AND THE METAPHOR OF TISSU”. Full TextAbstract

When Nathalie Sarraute depicts a knitting woman in her 1932 novel Tropismes, a figure “silent and apart, her head bowed modestly, counting her stitches under her breath” (31), I argue that she points to such a woman as a means of thinking through ideas about the texture and materiality of a woman’s interiority. Meditatively counting her stitches, the knitting woman appears to turn within, using her handicraft to gain access to her interiority while building fabric on her needles. Taking an interest in this and several other examples of women engaging with fiber arts, fabric, and textiles in Sarraute’s novel, my paper examines the link between these activities and the French word tissu. In an effort to illuminate connections between Sarraute’s depictions of women using fabric and Sarraute’s simultaneous fascination with the female body, I contend that the dual nature of the meaning of tissu becomes crucial, first in its understanding as cloth or fabric and second in its understanding as bodily tissue. Like a spider, weaving a web from its own secretions, the knitting woman takes control of the substance akin to bodily tissu emerging from her interior. Engaging both feminist and psychoanalytic approaches, my paper foregrounds Sarraute’s tissu as a way of thinking about the novel itself as a secretion of its author’s interiority, an embodied web of ideas and images over which its female author has agency and power in the act of her weaving.

Author Bio

Olivia Carpenter is a second-year PhD student in the English department at Harvard. Her work primarily focuses on race and gender in the long eighteenth century in literature from Great Britain and beyond, though she maintains broader interests in feminist literary criticism and the novel.

jj weiner. Working Paper. “New Test”.
Advanced Energy Buyers Group. Working Paper. “Organized Wholesale Market and Corporate Advanced Energy Procurement-”. aee_aebg_-_wholesalemkts_1.19.21.pdf
J Regetz, TJ Davies, EM Wolkovich, K Bolmgren, and BJ Mcgill. Working Paper. “Phylogenetically weighted regression: a method for modeling non-stationarity on evolutionary trees.” Systematic Biology.
Tim Anderson. Working Paper. “My working paper”. Publisher's Version
A.W. Hunter and J. Ortega-Hernández. Working Paper. “A primitive starfish ancestor from the Early Ordovician of Morocco reveals the origin of crown group Echinodermata”. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The somasteroids are Ordovician star-shaped animals widely regarded as ancestors of Asterozoa, the group of extant echinoderms that includes brittle stars and starfish. The phylogenetic position of somasteroids makes them critical for understanding the origin and early evolution of crown group Echinodermata. However, the early evolution of asterozoans, the origin of their distinctive body organization and their relationships with other Cambrian and Ordovician echinoderms, such as edrioasteroids, blastozoans, crinoids, and other asterozoans, remain problematic due to the difficulties of comparing the calcitic endoskeleton of these disparate groups. Here we describe the new somasteroid Cantabrigiaster fezouataensis from the Early Ordovician (Tremadocian) Fezouata Lagerstatte in Morocco. Cantabrigiaster shares with other somasteroids the presence of rod-like virgal ossicles that articulate with the ambulacrals, but differs from all other known asterozoans in the absence of adambulacral ossicles defining the arm margins. The unique arm construction evokes parallels with non-asterozoan echinoderms. Developmentally informed Bayesian and parsimony based phylogenetic analyses, which reflect the homology of the biserial ambulacral ossicles in Paleozoic echinoderms according to the Extraxial-Axial Theory, recover Cantabrigiaster as basal within stem group Asterozoa. Our results indicate that Cantabrigiaster is the earliest diverging stem group asterozoan, revealing the ancestral morphology of this major clade and clarifying the affinities of problematic Ordovician taxa. Somasteroids are resolved as a paraphyletic grade within stem and crown group Asterozoa (starfishes), whereas stenuroids are paraphyletic within stem group Ophiuroidea (brittle stars). Cantabrigiaster also illuminates the relationship between Ordovician crown group Echinodermata and its Cambrian stem lineage, which includes sessile forms with incipient radial symmetry such as edrioasteroids and blastozoans. The contentious Pelmatozoa hypothesis (i.e. monophyly of blastozoans and crinoids) is not supported; instead, blastozoans represent the most likely sister-taxon of crown group Echinodermata.

Jun Xu, Ah-Ram Kim, Ross W. Cheloha, Fabian A. Fischer, Joshua Shing Shun Li, Yuan Feng, Emily Stoneburner, Richard Binari, Stephanie E. Mohr, Jonathan Zirin, Hidde Ploegh, and Norbert Perrimon. Working Paper. “Protein visualization and manipulation in Drosophila through the use of epitope tags recognized by nanobodies.” bioRxiv.Abstract
Expansion of the available repertoire of reagents for visualization and manipulation of proteins will help understand their function. Short epitope tags installed on proteins of interest and recognized by existing binders such as nanobodies facilitate protein studies by obviating the need to isolate new antibodies directed against them. Nanobodies have several advantages over conventional antibodies, as they can be expressed and used as tools for visualization and manipulation of proteins in vivo. Here, we combine the advantages of short epitopes (NanoTags) and nanobodies specific for them by characterizing two short (<15 aa) tags, 127D01 and VHH05, which are high-affinity targets of nanobodies. We demonstrate that these NanoTags and the nanobodies that recognize them can be used in Drosophila for in vivo protein detection and re-localization, direct and indirect immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, and immunoprecipitation. We further show that CRISPR-mediated gene targeting provides a straightforward approach to tagging endogenous proteins with the NanoTags. Single copies of the NanoTags, regardless of their location, suffice for detection. This versatile and validated toolbox of tags and nanobodies will serve as a resource for a wide array of applications, including functional studies in Drosophila and beyond.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.
Advanced Energy Economy. Working Paper. “Putting Distributed Energy Resources in Wholesale Electricity Markets”. putting_distributed_energy_resources_to_work_in_wholesale_electricity_markets.pdf
Kyle R. Myers, Wei Yang Tham, Yian Yin, Nina Cohodes, Jerry G. Thursby, Marie C. Thursby, Peter E. Schiffer, Joseph T. Walsh, Karim R. Lakhani, and Dashun Wang. Working Paper. “Quantifying the Immediate Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Scientists”. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly disrupted the scientific enterprise, but we lack empirical evidence on the nature and magnitude of these disruptions. Here we report the results of a survey of approximately 4,500 Principal Investigators (PIs) at U.S.- and Europe-based research institutions. Distributed in mid-April 2020, the survey solicited information about how scientists' work changed from the onset of the pandemic, how their research output might be affected in the near future, and a wide range of individuals' characteristics. Scientists report a sharp decline in time spent on research on average, but there is substantial heterogeneity with a significant share reporting no change or even increases. Some of this heterogeneity is due to field-specific differences, with laboratory-based fields being the most negatively affected, and some is due to gender, with female scientists reporting larger declines. However, among the individuals' characteristics examined, the largest disruptions are connected to a usually unobserved dimension: childcare. Reporting a young dependent is associated with declines similar in magnitude to those reported by the laboratory-based fields and can account for a significant fraction of gender differences. Amidst scarce evidence about the role of parenting in scientists' work, these results highlight the fundamental and heterogeneous ways this pandemic is affecting the scientific workforce, and may have broad relevance for shaping responses to the pandemic's effect on science and beyond.
Mark Chin, Tom Kane, W. Kozakowski, Beth Schueler, and Doug Staiger. Working Paper. “School District Reform in Newark: Within- and Between- School Changes in Achievement Growth.” NBER Working Paper 23922 . Publisher's VersionAbstract
In 2011-12, Newark launched a set of educational reforms supported by $20 million gift. Using data from 2009 through 2016, we evaluate the change in Newark students’ achievement growth relative to similar students and schools elsewhere in New Jersey. We measure achievement growth using a “value-added” model, controlling for prior achievement, demographics and peer characteristics. By the fifth year of reform, Newark saw statistically significant gains in English and no significant change in math achievement growth. Perhaps due to the disruptive nature of the reforms, growth declined initially before rebounding in recent years. Aided by the closure of low value-added schools, much of the improvement was due to shifting enrollment from lower-to higher-growth district and charter schools. Shifting enrollment accounted for 62 percent of the improvement in English. In math, such shifts offset what would have been a decline in achievement growth.
Newark Education Reforms NBER Working Paper
Jerry Thursby, Marie Thursby, Karim R. Lakhani, Kyle R. Myers, Nina Cohodes, Sarah Bratt, Dennis Byrski, Johanna Cohoon, and Maria Roche. Working Paper. “Scientific Production: An Exploration into Organization, Resource Allocation, and Funding”.
Misha Teplitskiy, Eamon Duede, Michael Menietti, and Karim R. Lakhani. Working Paper. “Status drives how we cite: Evidence from thousands of authors”. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Researchers cite works for a variety of reasons, including some having nothing to do with acknowledging influence. The distribution of different citation types in the literature, and which papers attract which types, is poorly understood. We investigate high-influence and low-influence citations and the mechanisms producing them using 17,154 ground-truth citation types provided via survey by 9,380 authors systematically sampled across academic fields. Overall, 54% of citations denote little-to-no influence and these citations are concentrated among low status (lightly cited) papers. In contrast, high-influence citations are concentrated among high status (highly cited) papers through a number of steps that resemble a pipeline. Authors discover highly cited papers earlier in their projects, more often through social contacts, and read them more closely. Papers' status, above and beyond any quality differences, directly helps determine their pipeline: experimentally revealing or hiding citation counts during the survey shows that low counts cause lowered perceptions of quality. Accounting for citation types thus reveals a "double status effect": in addition to affecting how often a work is cited, status affects how meaningfully it is cited. Consequently, highly cited papers are even more influential than their raw citation counts suggest.
jj weiner. Working Paper. “test”.
Seth Lerer (editor). Working Paper. “Test 1”.
D. L. de-Silva. Working Paper. “Test 2”.
Mary Fowkes. Working Paper. “test art work, more information in title”.